What things do they do together to enjoy each other's company? PRESENT TENSES REVIEW 1.2 Listen again and choose the right word to complete each statement. Or do they form relationships only for practical reasons? Present continuous The two animals are fulfilling a basic social need in each other. Her parents want to be supportive, but they no longer help with Bella's homework; in spoken English she has surpassed them. Their parents 2 have spoiled them a little perhaps. Marie had had French nannies who coarseness (n) /'b:.sn;is/ bei ng rough and dow n-to-earth; a lack of sop histi cat ion or refinement folklo re (n) /'fauk ,b:r/ the trad it iona l songs, stories, proverbs, legends of a society nanny (n) /'nreni/ a woman paid to look after young chil dren spin (v) /sp m/ to make natura l fibre (l ike woo l) into t hread lf ! liie J;[email protected]@j YOUR REACTIONS TO STORIES 27 real life reacting to stories • pronunciation linking and assimilation 2d What a disaster! oil well, oil tanker, oil field For further information and practice, see Workbook page 59. Both Nigeria and Guatemala are hoping they will be able to make similar deals. 1 Co-operation between animals of different species is not a natural b easy c usual 2 Dogs are usually ···············-·····- . Present perfect simple Suriya has understood that the hound dog is very hungry. She has already learnt much more about the world outside than them. Often these children 3 receive a better education than their parents. Real life reacting to stories 4 Pronunciation linking and assimilation 1 Work in pairs. A spokesperson for local environmental groups explained, 'This is a fantastic initiative.
If ever I'm in trouble, I know I can rely on her for help. Think about three of your 8 Colin and I have been teaching at the same school for friends . these people and what things you do 9 Barney and I have known each other since we were at together. It doesn't matter if we haven't seen each other similar in any way. b We use from to introduce the agent in a passive sentence. It was from his brother in New York who was also seeking his fortune in America and was looking for him. They began their work at a time when Germany had been occupied by the French under Napoleon. As young scholars, the brothers Grimm began work on the fai1y tale collection in order to save the endangered oral storytelling tradition of Germany. That Th at That That That m ust have been a relief. But that is exactly what Alberto Acosta did when he was appointed Ecuador's Oil Minister in 2007. We can rep ort ideas in the present or in the p ast. • before most cities, countries, continents, lakes, mountains, lan guages and names of people.
Speaking 7 Kate has always stood by me in times of difficulty. We get on very well, even though we never really Choose from the types in Exercise 8. I think I've been round to his Think also about how often you see house once. Do you think the changes are difficult for Bella too? a The person doing the action - the agent - is not the main focus of the sentence. Then one day he saw an announcement in a newspaper that was read by immigrants. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm viewed themselves as patriotic students of folklore . Comment ing on a good outcome to a bad situation Phew ! 2 If you'd visited this area twenty years ago, you'd've seen a very different river. 4 If people'd been more careful, things wouldn't've come to this point. Then mingle with the other students and tell each other your ideas. CLIMATE CHANGE 83 vocabulary oil • reading Ecuador's plan to protect natural resources • grammar wish, would rather and if only • speaking wishes 7 b The minister for no oil One thing you do not expect an oil minister to do is to block the development of his own country's oil fields. Use We use passive rep orting structures to talk abou t events when the speaker is unknown or unimportant, or when someone w ishes to remain an onymous.
A history of film, from its early beginnings in the 19'h century to the Hol lywood blockbusters of today. But at the same time these new values are also being questioned. Both my sister and I have follo wed them into the medical profession and now I'm wo rking as a doctor at the Mount Sinai hospital in Queens. 4 Find the ticked expression that matches sentences 1-6. And so it was that the Grim.ms' fairy tales lived happily ever after. The state oil company, Petroecuador, opposes the scheme and many suspect that President Correa now wishes he had never supported it.
A special aquarium that gives its student teachers lessons in life. ~ Unit 9 Queen of Egypt The history of the most famous Egyptian queen - Cleopatra. ' .,, Unit 6 East Timor Unit 8 Mount Fuji • ·~ ,1,~ Find out what Mount Fuji means to the Japanese. Have our lives been made richer by all our new possessions? As in all changing societies people are trying to find the right balance between the 'new' and 'old'. I don't know if that kind of dedication is genetic or just something that you learn from your parents, but that desire to get ahead ... The great thing about America is that it gives you the opportunity to live those dreams too. FAMILY INFLUENCES MEETING PEOPLE YOU KNOW 15 real life meeting people you know • pronunciation expressive intonation 1d A face from the past 5 Pronunciation expressive intonation Real life meeting people you know a 'i 1.5 Emotion (surprise, excitement, etc.) is often conveyed by expressive or exaggerated intonation. E 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 4' 1.4 Listen to a conversation between two people, Tim and Greta, who meet by accident in the street. 1 how Greta expresses her surprise at meeting Tim 2 how Greta asks Tim for his news 3 what Tim says about Greta's appearance 4 how Greta describes her business 5 what Greta says about Amanda, their other friend 6 how Greta says she can't carry on the conversation b Hello. Long before the Grimms' time, storytelling thrived in inns, barns and the h omes of peasant women. At the same time only a few countries have shown interest, with only Germany promising $800 million over thi rteen years.
C ENGAG E , _ Learning UPPER INTERMEDIATE Paul Dummett John Hughes Helen Stephenson - Contents Unit Grammar Vocabulary Real life (functions) Pronunciation 1 present tenses review the passive fr iends nouns and phrasal verbs w ordbuilding forming adjectives from nouns word focus: get meeting peop le you know w eak forms in passive verbs expressive intonation reacting to stories the letter I contracted negat ive forms linking and assimilation asking for and offering technical help /r/ and /t/ in American Eng lish stress in twosyllab le verbs describing likes and dislikes w eak form of disappearing sounds reaching decisions rhymin g words Relationships pages 9-20 VID EO: Immigration page 18 2 Storytelling pages 21-32 past simple and present perfect simple past tenses review: past continuous, past simple, past perfect simpl e, past perfect continuous VIDEO: H i story of film page 30 3 Science and technology REVIEW page 20 II books and film s wordbuilding: synonyms word focus: keep REVIEW page 32 future forms review: will, going to, about to, present continuous, present simpl e future continuous and future perfect simple wordbui lding: prefixes wo rdbu il ding: compound nouns (noun noun) useful devices word foc us: out of pages 33-44 VIDEO: Augmented reality page 42 4 REVIEW page 44 II features of a city redevelopment w ordbuil ding: adverb adjective re- verbs wordbuilding : prefix re with verbs and nouns w ord focus: pick REVIEW page 68 phrasal verbs w ith in and out wordbui lding: phrasa l verbs with in and out word focus: mind pages 69-80 VIDEO: Ea st Timor page 78 2 II REVIEW page 80 ge ting a' ~ .., -onation in questions ntonation in sentences with o clauses Listening Reading Critical thinking Speaking Writing three people talking about important relationships in their lives a radio extract about animal friendships an article about changing attitudes in China an article about immigrant fam ilies in New York identifying the main aspect your friends the generation gap family influences text type: an informal email (1) w riting skill greetings and endings a conversatio n about different accounts of Ayrton Senna's life an interview with a film critic a true story about dangerous animals an article about the brothers Grimm close reading the fi lm of the book a famous w riter or filmmaker narrow escapes storytelling text type: a story w riting skill: using descriptive w ords three people making predictions about the future a presentation about overpopulation an article about augmented reality an article about appropriate technology balancing arguments globa l problems overpopulation information age predictions technological solutions text type: short email requests writing skill being polite a con versation about two people wh o do artistic things in their free time an extract from a radio programme about what's on in Melbourne an artist's opinion about wh at art is an articl e about unusual street art an article about the origins of rap analysing contrasts participation in the arts an art competition music and values text type: an online review wri ting skill: personalising your writin g three speakers talking about different types of development someone talking about redevelopment in their city an interview with a journalist talking about social development in southern India an article about urban development in Duba i an article about a hydropower dam project in Laos fact or opinion changes in your town a happy society sensitive developm ent evaluating a development project text type: an op inion essay writing skill: linking w ords someone describing their stay at an ice hotel an interview about volunteer vacations a blog about holidays at home an extract from a travel magazine about historical hotels claims and ju stifications local knowledge plann in g a staycation opin ions about travel ideas for an unusua l hotel text type: a letter of complaint w riting skill: formal language 3 - Unit Grammar Vocabulary Real life (functions) Pronunciation 7 mixed conditional sentences conservation oil w ordbuilding: collocations related to one word strong fee lings w ord focus: better making your point contractions in conditionals sentence stress reporting w hat you heard w eak forms in verbs the schw a describing skills, talents and experience linking vow els /w/, /j/ and /r/ difficult words describing traditions /u:/ and /ju:/ t he letters getting clarification contrastive sentence stress linkin g in question forms negot iat ing he sounds IJI, /If I, /- and /ft5/ sentence stress in idiomatic phrases wish, would rather and if only Natural resources pages 81-92 VIDEO: Galapagos energy page 90 8 ~ REVIEW page 92 photography the feel-good factor w ordbuilding: form ing adjectives from verbs w ord focus: word reporting verbs passive reporting verbs The news pages 93-104 ~ VIDEO: Mount Fuji page 102 9 REVIEW page 104 articles: the or zero article? Her parents are representative of a confused generation in a confused time. She's actually quite forgetful now, but she never forgets family details. Ask the others in the group to say w hich intonation you used. According to the Grim.ms, the collection served as 'a manual of manners.' To this day, parents read them to their children because th ey approve of the lessons in the stories: keep your promises, don't talk to strangers, work h ard, obey your parents. Mr Acosta said he would rather the oil companies did not destroy these natural riches. It w as thought that there wouldn't be any money to fund the proposals. He was the youngest person to cross the Atlantic Ocean by boat.
relative clauses reduced relative clauses careers wordbui lding: verb( preposition) noun collocations w ord focus: long Talented people pages 105-116 ~ VIDEO: Queen of Egypt page 114 10 Customs and behaviour REVIEW page 116 habitual actions: present tenses, will raising children: verbs food and eating habits word focus: common w eddings wordbuilding: w ord pairs used to, usually, be used to and get used to pages117-128 VIDEO: Eating insects page 126 11 ~ REVIEW page 128 could, was able to, manage to and succeed in learning w ordbuilding: idiomatic expressions word focus: learn fu tu re in the past Knowledge and learning pages 129-140 VIDEO: Paraguay shaman page 138 ~ REVIEW page 140 focus adverbs only, just, 12 focus adverbs too, as The economy causative have and get money domestic help w ordbuilding: the adjective getting things done word focus: hard even well, also pages 141-152 VIDEO: Japan page 150 ~ REVIEW page 152 COMMU ! In modern Chinese society different ideologies are fighting against each other. What that has meant is that all of us - brothers, aunts, cousins - have a strong family bond and a strong sense of belonging to a group that has struggled and fought together to succeed here. Both my parents came here from Jamaica, where getting a good education is a must. 6 Imagine you are in a large shopping centre during your lunch break from work. Yet despite all Wilhelm's additions, the core of these stories was left untouched, in all their medieval coarseness. His innovative idea was to leave the oil reserves beneath Yasuni Park untouched, in return for compensation of half their value. We use passive rep orting structures with reporting verbs such as said, thought, believed, claimed, considered, estimated, expected, known, reported, suggested and understood. • before a superlative adjective: That was the most terrifi;ing experience I've ever had!
, Unit 10 Eating insects Discover why eating insects could be good for you, and why one man is on a mission to change our tastes . Unit 12 Japan Learn more about the history and traditions of Japan. Recently, Bella's family put their grandfather into a nursing home. In traditional China, caring for aged parents has always been an unavoidable duty, but times are changing. 'I want one day to put my parents in the best nursing home' - the best that money can buy, she means. Flat intonation often suggests a lack of emotion or interest. 1 When was the last time you bumped into someone that you hadn't seen for ages? During win ter nights, as they sat spurnin g wool, women kept each other company and entertained themselves with tales of advenhire, romance and magic. Vocabulary oil Reading 1 How many of these expressions do you know? Then read the article Which is shown in the photo above?
Unit 7 Galapagos energy Unit 11 Paraguay shaman ~ Find out about the im pact of humans and tourism on the Galapagos Islands. 7 Unit 1 Relationships FEA T U R ES 10 1 Work in pairs. Choose the phrase you think best describes the photo. Changing attitudes among China's young generation 1 2 3 4 14 Bloodlines Two accounts of how family has shaped people's lives Blood is thicker than water A friend in need is a friend indeed Like father, like son No man is an island 3 fl 1.1 Listen to three people talking about important relationships in their lives. 2 Are they normally working animals, pets, wild animals or something else? 'When us that' Bella's father says, 'I thought - is it selfish to think she wi ll be a dutiful and caring daughter and look after us? Listen to these phrases and say if the intonation is expressive (E) or flat (F). Altogeth er, 40 such storytellers delivered tales to the Grimms, many of them coming to their house in Kassel. oil field oil slick oil refinery oil reserves oil tanker oil well and choose the sentence that best summarises Acosta's idea.
Present perfect continuous They have been doing this every day since they first met. 1 present simple 2 present continuous 3 present perfect simple 4 present perfect continuous a highlights a recent activity b describes a situation in progress or happening around now c describes a permanent I usual situation d highlights the present result of a recent past action Vocabulary friends: nouns and phrasal verbs 8 Work in pairs. 'Our advice is not listened to and it is not wanted; her mother says. Their parents 4 send them to private schools and they 5 encourage them to go to university. What kind of things do you a find often go wrong day-to-day: computers, transport, things in the house, forgetting things? 1 The bus broke down on the motorway, so we were all left stranded until help could arrive. If only people in developed countries appreciated that these forests absorb a lot of the CO, that their industries produce.
For furth er in formatio n and practice, see page 156. What type of friend or person is each person talking about in Exercise 7? acquaintance fair-weather friend fellow student flatmate girlfriend mutual friend old friend travel companion true friend workmate 6 Choose the correct tense to complete this passage about animal friendships. 'When she was little, she agreed with all my opinions. Which of the verbs in bold in 1-6 below also sound natural in the passive? In China the new economy 6 is raising everyone's hopes. (dress) as if they are eighteen.' _ (leave) behind by all the new 'We technology they use.' Our grandparents __ . 2 Ii 1.13 Look at these extracts from six personal accounts of things that went wrong. 2 My trousers got caught on the door handle and as I walked away they tore. Underline the sounds in these sentences that you think are linked or assimila ted. I just wish- they would take a longer-term view of this problem. 6 Please come and discuss it at the newspaper office tomorrow.
No one 7 has provided I has been providing a definite answer, but it seems some animals are just naturally sociable. 5 Complete these statements using words from the article. She'd much rather work I worked for them than her present company.