The Uttarādhyayana-sūtra "offers a systematic presentation of four types of meditative practices such as: meditation (dhyāna), abandonment of the body (kāyotsarga), contemplation (anuprekṣā), and reflection (bhāvanā)." Pragya argues that "we can conclude that Mahāvīra’s method of meditation consisted of perception and concentration in isolated places, concentration that sought to be unaffected by physical surroundings as well as emotions." In this era, the Jain canon was recorded and Jain philosophy systematized.
It is clear that Jain meditation and samadhi continued to evolve and to be practiced after the death of Mahavira by figures such as Acharya Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of Maurya Empire who became a Jain monk in old age and a student of Bhadrabahu.
The other two are pure states of meditation and conduct, which are causes of emancipation.
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It describes Mahavira as practicing intense austerities, fasts (most commonly three days long, as extreme as six months of fasting) and meditations.
In one instance he practiced standing meditation for sixteen days and nights.
He did this by facing each of the four directions for a period of time, and then turning to face the intermediate directions as well as above and below. 2nd century BCE) gives a summary of four main types of meditation (dhyana) or concentrated thought.
The first two are mental or psychological states in which a person may become fully immersed and are causes of bondage.
Sagarmal Jain notes that during the canonical age of Jaina meditation, one finds strong analogues with the 8 limbs of Patanjali Yoga, including the yamas and niyamas, through often under different names.
Sagarmal also notes that during this period the Yoga systems of Jainism, Buddhism and Patanjali Yoga had many similarities.
In this state, due to the efficacy of dharma, one’s conduct becomes purified.
One is beloved among beings and single-mindedly devoted to dharma. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion.
Sagarmal Jain divides the history of Jaina yoga and meditation into five stages, 1. canonical age (fifth century BCE to fifth century CE), 3.
post-canonical (sixth century CE to twelfth century CE), age of tantra and rituals (thirteenth to nineteenth century CE), modern age (20th century on).
(AS 312) In these places was the wise Sramana for thirteen long years; he meditated day and night, exerting himself, undisturbed, strenuously.