Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard.
London has numerous museums, galleries, libraries and sporting events.
These include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres.
While the City of Westminster developed into a true capital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre, and it flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London.
In 1100, its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.
Westminster Abbey, rebuilt in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe.
Winchester had previously been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time on, London became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war.
London then grew slowly until about 950, after which activity increased dramatically.
By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England.
The next, heavily planned, incarnation of Londinium prospered, and it superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100.
At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60,000.
Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo- (used to form place-names).